Posts tagged ‘education’
New Resources and Communities Abound…
1. Two Social Marketing Blogs join the movement! Mike Newton-Ward, a social marketer based in North Carolina launched Social Marketing Panorama earlier this fall. Bob Marshall also launched USSOCIALMARKETINGPLAN to highlight the need of a larger social marketing movement that attaches itself to a body of professionals in the United States.
2. C-Change, a new peer-reviewed and research-based e-newsletter developed by USAID and AED is now available and…is free! According to the web site, “C-Change works with global, regional and local partners to use communication to change behaviors and social norms, supported by evidence-based strategies, state-of-the-art training and capacity building, and cutting-edge research. The ultimate goal is the improved health and well-being of people in the developing world.” The e-newsletters focus on four main areas:
- Family Planning and Reproductive Health
- Communication for Behavior and Social Change
3. GovLoop, the “premiere social network for the government community,” including agencies, contractors and consultants has grown to over 1700 members! I invite you to join me and the main other amazing professionals on this robust community created through NING, especially SB readers who are keen to the government 2.0 movement! For those in DC, join the DC Social Media Club this upcoming week Oct. 22 for a seminar panel on all items Government 2.0, moderated by John Bell of Ogilvy PR.
4. As I’ve shared, the full presentations from all the keynotes during the World Social Marketing Conference are available to view and download. I shared my own recap, as well as a picture recap. Good news is that I wasn’t alone as we had a ‘team’ of bloggers covering the event: Stephen Dann, Craig Lefebvre, Andy Jaeger, and Cheryl Brown.
5. Edelman recently launched their Health Engagement Blog to stress the concept of ‘health engagement.’ The blog corresponds to Edelman’s whitepaper, available for free, called Health Engagement Barometer Study.
6. Mike Kujawski, a social marketer based in Canada, created a Government 2.0 Best Practices Wiki for Canadian, U.S. and International Governments. In its first week of launch, the wiki got over 5000 visitors!
7. The CDC is now offering a web-based course called Social Marketing for Nutrition and Physical Activity. This is good. Though, I still echo Nancy Lee’s call for social marketing curricula integrating into formal education. And more courses would be a great start, but a formal graduate degree in social marketing would be even better.
Have social marketing (or social marketing-related) news you’d like to have featured in the Bulletin? Send job posts, new workshops, events, research resources and tools to email@example.com with Bulletin in the subject line. =)
Finally…a picture-based recap on the events from the World Social Marketing Conference, which took place in Brighton, England on September 29-30.
NOTE: PDFs and audio of all keynote presentations are available here.
Prof. Alan Andreasen gave a closing and optimistic keynote address about the future of social marketing. –>
This quote was presented by England’s National Social Marketing Centre’s director, Jeff French, who calls all social marketers to unite together and learn from each other in moving the field forward. –>
<– Philip Kotler opened the conference with a keynote about poverty, and how we can apply social marketing to poverty to increase effectiveness and positive change.
Jeff Jordan, M.A., President and Founder of Rescue Social Change, presented his research about Social Branding (which he trademarked), along with 2 case studies about how to use social norming to influence behavior for high-risk adolescents. –>
<– The Purpose Driven Campaign – my master’s thesis that I presented during the poster session! (I also created SocialButterfly, Fly4Change.com pens that were quite popular. =)
Craig Lefebvre, presented an exciting presentation where he “dropped the gauntlet,” and presented the challenge for social marketers to walk the walk, as well as talk the talk when it comes to creating an international social marketing association. Lefebvre announced that he alone has raised a quarter of a million dollars for the project! –>
Other Highlights included:
- NIOSH presented add some ‘flavoring’ to the conference by presenting their case study on a social marketing program to improve the safety of butter flavoring employees.
- Ogilvy PR presented their fascinating Pandemic Flu case study.
- Porter Novelli and CDC presented their case study on HIV testing.
- Nancy Lee outlined 4 examples of how social marketing can offer products and services.
- RT Hon. Alan Milbourne, MP, discussed how the world of social marketing and public policy relate.
- Bob Marshall presented findings from studying the NSMC and from his recent survey about creating a new social marketing association for the States. This is part of an on-going discussion that can be followed here, USSocialMarketingPlan.
- Ronne Ostby-Malling of AED presented her preliminary research about the behavior of online social network behavior among adolescents versus their behavior in real-life.
1. Guy Kawasaki: I just started reading Guy’s book “The Art of the Start,” and already, I’m hooked and have developed my mantra. Thank you to my boss for recommending it. (We’ll see if my boss keeps up on my blog now. =) I was already a Kawasaki fan due to my interactions and experiences with Alltop.com. Plus, when I found out about the pregnant man a month before it debuted on Oprah from Guy’s Truemor’s site, I thought, this is no ordinary guy.
Conversation: What ingredient turns you into the Energizer Bunny? On a more serious note, in the very beginning, when you were with Apple and all, what made you finally let go of the ledge, and follow that first big idea?
2. Rohit Bhargava: Not only does he work for a very well established company at Ogilvy PR, but he doesn’t let himself get comfortable. He seems to always be on the go, expanding his own personal horizons, and living his passions and interests. I feel that, from reading and following his blog, he is in the business because he truly loves it – a rare quality in a marketer.
Conversation: Let’s talk about 1) writing a book 2) publishing a book and 3) a book tour. This year Rohit published Personality Not Included, and in doing so, not only elevated his personal brand, but also expanded his following, further established his name, helped elevate his company, met some cool peeps, seemed to have buckets of fun, and made a mohawk chicken cool in the process. Not an easy task, especially the chicken.
3. Craig Lefebvre: Dr. Lefebrve’s blog has encouraged and inspired me professionally as he writes, researches, practices and pretty much breathes all items social marketing. I am continually learning from him and inspired by his leadership in a field that is working to grow itself and its professionalism.
Conversation: Dr. Lefebvre has a range of experiences in the states, and from what I gather, abroad. Plus, he’s a professor. I am a journalism major; thus, I love asking questions. And professors have loads of information, but they share that information with a learning curve in mind. Not to be flashy. Not to gain attention. But to share….hence open publishing. First item: Where do you envision the field 5, 10, 20 years from now?
4. Geoff Livingston: Geoff seems like an all-around great guy, go-getter, and someone who ‘gets it.’ Not only has he published a book, started a growing company, leads a great team (go Qui and friends), is a recognized leader in the field, is an off-line role model, but he also sincerely wants to do good. This is the apple in the eye of Socialbutterfly readers. Keep that eye on Livingston Communications and the Buzz Bin. They are going to re-define how we do business.
Conversation: Business is still business, but I’ve read on the Buzz Bin that you all have some tricks up your sleeves that you will be rolling out. And, that this could include a social entrepreneur-type set-up. Now, this is a conversation I am all ears (all two of them) about hearing.
5. Beth Kanter: If you are not familiar with Beth, I recommend getting familiar. She is the go-to-guru for all items non-profit tech. A fundraiser, writer, blogger, practioner, speaker and sector role model, Beth continually gives us her best. I follow Beth’s blog like it’s my job. She offers the tips, she begins conversations that need discussing, highlights those in the field, calls us to action and gets us involved.
Conversation: When do you sleep? Do you even sleep? Though she’s posted about her experiences and shares them, there is something to be said about hearing it first hand. This is why I want to hear specifically about Beth’s outreach and work in Cambodia. How, why, when? I’m an avid traveler, and the fiance and I really did consider the Peace Corps vs. real jobs last year, so would love to hear more how Beth has combined her love for social media, non-profits with work abroad.
6. Chris Brogan: If there is anyone’s writing style I love, it’s Chris Brogan’s. He lays it out. Step by step. And, he magically succeeds in being relational, personal, yet professional and educational all at the same time. Not only do I love Brogan’s resourceful blog, but also his helpful e-newsletters, which had a great free e-book about personal branding the other week.
Conversation: About personal branding…(smile), let’s explore that some more shall we? Now, I am probably one of very few, who have yet to see Brogan present, let alone have the honor of a face-to-face conversation. My question would be: how do you manage multiple personal brands? Or, let me re-phrase: multiple personal interests –> online. Another one: what are the biggest mistakes people make with their personal brand online?
What about you? What would be the conversation you would want to have if you got to meet some of your own personal wonder-bloggers?
After allowing some time for reflection, I want to respond to the Changeblogger Meme that the wonderful Qui Diaz began over at the Buzz Bin.
Qui, while highlighting the changeblogger movement, also created mapped out a great way to further spread the word, while also allowing us to learn more about each other and what motivates us in our work. She asks us three important questions. Thus, these questions not only continue the changeblogger mantra, but lets us know more about our community.
I love to champion for people to own their education. It’s my number one advice to any student or colleague. Education, being defined as increasing one’s willingness to learn – about life, people, a neighbor, a stranger’s circumstance, a country’s predicament, and about oneself. From this, I feel so much else flows. =)
Many people. This being both an Olympic year and an election year, I am seeing it more sources for inspiration than ever. Journalists are working towards this goal. Teachers, communicators, athletes, social tech friends, lawyers, youth, social workers, non-profits, repairmen, grandmothers, and more. I’m just blessed to be working among these people…and learning from them along the way! =)
Through this blog, I hope I am inspiring others to continue learning and growing. I hope that in you, there is a root that’s taken hold that is growing infectiously within you and being spread among others, that when you believe in something, when you work hard, and settle for nothing less than your utmost best, anything truly is possible. It’s just easier when we have a community to support us, and healthy influencers amongst us. Thus, thank you.
Before you think I am being a cop-out from the meme. This is honestly how I feel. And, I feel the beginning for positive change around oneself, begins within oneself.
Beyond this, I do have a personal interest in finding a cure for multiple sclerosis. Much of my volunteer efforts have gone towards this issue, as well as other health-related issues. I’m also a strong believer in mentors and role-modeling programs, individual empowerment as a route against alcohol and drug abuse. As a female and past gymnast, I am well aware issues like anorexia due to many beloved friends battles. The issue that has been increasinly on my mind most recently is access to healthy drinking water.
However, this is why I love social marketing! It goes beyond awareness, beyond fundraising, and looks to develop long-term programs and initiatives to address these challenges. I can’t wait for the future of this field. But that’s a whole ‘nother rant. For now, join the journey. It’s going to be rad. Check it, =)
photo cred: flickr, carfs
Well, you can! Andre and others will be attending HealthCamp MD in Owings, Maryland on Saturday, June 14, 2008. HealthCamp MD is being hosted by Mark Scrimshire at EKIVE. To learn more about the event, check out its wiki here. Sign up now while delegate and sponsorship spots are still available.
I recently got the opportunity to meet Andre through a Social Marketing Meetup he planned in Washington D.C. with Nedra Weinreich of the blog Spare Change. Thus, I nominated him for this week’s Blogger Neighborhood, as he too values both online and offline exchange. Enjoy!
photo credit: the woodstove
Blog Name: Pulse and Signal
Blog Topics: Health Communication, Health Education, Social Media, Personal Technology, Consumer Behavior
About the Author: Andre Blackman graduated with a degree in Public and Community Health in 2005 but has had a passion for science/technology ever since he could remember. He loves to meet new, interesting people and think about ways to make the world just a little better. He is a firm believer in the power of people coming together for a common good and is interested in using social technologies to improve the health of others through better health communications. I use Twitter a lot (follow me @mindofandre).
If you could live on any street, what would that street be named and why?
Changemaker Lane, I want to live on a street that continually reminds me of what I should have done that day as I leave and as I come home.
Who would be your dream real-life neighbor?
I have a few but at the moment, Tiger Woods. He is focused, a family man and he runs an awesome foundation that I hope to emulate.
What first prompted you to blog?
After nearly 2 years of reading blogs and thinking about both health and technology, I decided to take the leap and start writing those thoughts down. Not too long into the blogging, I started making great friends through online communication tools and that continued to fuel my excitement for blogging!
If you customized your own license plate, what would it say and why?
URWRLD – in this day and age more than ever people have the opportunities to fulfill their dreams and achieve their personal goals…it’s your world.
What would you gift to a new neighbor as the perfect welcoming gift?
A REAL list of best places to eat and attractions in the town/city to visit. You know the corporate ones lie sometimes!
What’s your favorite blog post and why?
It would probably be when I wrote “The Importance of Sleep in the Wired Generation.” This was one of the first posts I wrote that got decent attention and even the Sleep Foundation chimed in on the comments section. It was important to me because of what I saw happening to a couple people I knew (including myself!) when trying to keep up with all the social media buzz and Web events. You barely get sleep! And lack of sleep has some detrimental effects.
What’s one lesson you’ve learned from blogging?
The importance of interacting with others – the more you comment and make genuine relationships with others, the more you get back, probably even more so.
Past Blogger Neighbors Include:
- Osocio @ Osocio, nominated by SocialButterfly
- Beth Kanter @ Beth’s Blog, nominated by SocialButterfly
- Beth Dunn @ Small Dots, nominated by Beth Kanter
- Len Edgerly @ LenEdgerly.com, nominated by Beth Dunn
- Stacey Monk @ Epic Change, nominated by the Twitter-verse
- Jason Dick @ A Small Change, nominated by Stacey Monk
- Roger Carr @ Everyday Giving, nominated by Jason Dick
- …and now Andre Blackman, nominated by SocialButterfly
This continuous weekly series highlights different blogs and their respective bloggers in the blogosphere neighborhood. Following the great Mr. Rogers, who tells us to ‘Get to know your neighbor,’ this series introduces us to our blogger neighbors, making for a more unified, collaborative voice for the social sector. Like to nominate someone or be featured yourself? Contact me @ firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hello again friends, and I thank you for your patience as I took a much needed California vacation and attended my graduate school graduation from the Missouri School of Journalism. And, after all my hard work, especially the past couple of months, I had a moment where it all was captured in tears of joy….as I walked across the stage. Yes, I was that girl. haha
In the past week and a half I learned some things about blogging…while actually not blogging. For better and for worse, they are:
- The Big Duh. If you are not daily checking in on the blogosphere and your online community, your growth and readership will be stunted. (duh right?) =) But, I realized this would happen, and am completely content with it, as I know I fully plan to continue blogging and developing this further in the future. But for the time being, I just needed a break.
- Connect. Connecting with those you care about in real life, is just as important, and more important (sorry friends) than connecting with those online. While in Cali, I remembered more of the joys of living away from a computer, a phone, email, etc…and made a mental note to keep my online social life in check. On the other side, I thought of many a time to Twitter, especially for site/restaurant recommendations!
- Don’t be bashful. Tell your family and friends about your blog…they too are interested. And this alone can spark and spread word of mouth, and provide instant feedback.
- You will miss it and feel out of the loop when you return. Beth Dunn discusses this feeling in-depth when she took a hiatus from blogging for the first time in 5 years this past March.
- Your body can only take so much. After going off of maybe 4-5 hours of sleep a night the past five months, conducting research, writing a thesis, traveling on vacation, moving to Washington D.C., commuting up to 3 hours a day, doing event marketing off-site for our MS Quest non-profit and other freelance work…I woke up the day after graduation with a sore throat, no voice, and $15 worth of cough drops and cold medicine. Love your readers, but remember to love yourself too. 😉
Look forward to continuing the social marketing and social media conversation…as I’m back!
You all know what I have been up to lately…feel free to fill me in on what you’ve been up to in the comments or through email at email@example.com.
Photo Credit: bettisue (Flickr)
Joe, on the social marketing list serv, posed a great scenario the other week and has allowed me to share its results in a blog post, as I think many others will find the information helpful.
Joe posed the question that asked for research that shows why providing people with information does not change behavior alone…aka: how do you show the value of investing in social marketing?
The listserv showed its wisdom, value and use by its overwhelming response. The responses full of resources, tips and ideas are summarized below, thanks to Joe’s help.
Individual attribution to comments have been erased to protect the person’s privacy. Also, these comments are made by individuals and do not reflect the attitudes of the entire social marketing list serv or the author of this blog. But, it should provide some great food for thought and perhaps offer some ideas for effective social marketing. In no particular order…
1. Some people think information alone changes behaviors. Ask them this: Do most people in America know thateating less and being more active will lead to weight loss? Knowing that, we should all be thin, right, because we all know this
I have spent the last eight years using emotion to influence health related behaviors. Check out one project at this website that shows how emotions could be used to change health-related behaviors: www.touchingheartstouchingminds.com
All marketing research says that emotions drive behaviors, not logic and fact alone. There are hundreds of books you could suggest, but here’s a simple one: Marketing Straight to the Heart by Barry Fieg
2. I don’t know of any one definitive study, but the example I often use is smoking. Numerous studies show that ‘everyone’ or at least the vast majority know that smoking is harmful, so giving people the facts just
3. I’m sure you could find information to this effect on the WHO site under health promotion. I believe also that Green & Kreuter discuss this with the PRECEDE-PROCEED model.
4. I would recommend you take a look at the ways that Safe Routes to School has opted to address the challenge of getting more kids to be active by walking or biking to school. The most broad and brief description of our issue is that involves changing behaviors to combat childhood obesity and also teach safety. Together with bicycle advocacy in general we’ve found that it’s not just education, but also encouragement, enforcement and engineering. Programs that don’t have a good balance of the 4 e’s don’t seem to be effective. I’d be happy to give you more information if you find it appropriate.
5. To that I would add the same thought around drinking and driving. Not only do people know it’s bad and potentially very harmful, it is even against the law, yet people continue to engage in the behavior.
6. How about these:
Tobacco. For a decade we let people know that tobacco kills one out of three people. It wasn’t until we began increasing taxes (price), decreasing access for minors (place), making people smoke outside (ambiance), and providing quit lines (products) that we saw significant decrease (about 50% decrease since 1964).
Seatbelts. Letting people know that “we love you so buckle up” only got about half of us to do it. It took primary seatbelt laws, increased fines, more comfortable seatbelts, “ding ding ding” sounds as reminders.
Recycling. Look at the low rates of recycling before we began providing containers (products) and streetside pickup (place) and in come communities fines for putting recyclables into garbage cans (price).
Organ Donation: We would not have the numbers of organ donors (although still not what we need) if we didn’t have sign up when getting/renewing our drivers license (Place).
Voting: Oregon has the highest voting rates in the country because they have the (only) vote-by-mail (place).
7. Here are a couple of other sources from the public health field:
This one talks about ineffective strategies related to college students and alcohol.
You could also check: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/index.html I believe that they probably have some statements in their reviews about the ineffectiveness of straight education efforts.
8. Ok, here’s the grand daddy: What customers Think by Gerald Zaltman of Harvard School of Business. A painful book to read, but it is loaded with tons of research studies documenting that feelings are more important than facts. Don’t buy the book–it’s not one you’ll love to read. It’s in almost every library. Other (less painful) options: The Marketing Power of Emotion by John and Nicholas O’Shaughnessy by Oxford press. Body of Truth: Leveraging what consumers can’t or won’t say by Dan Hill. Who am I: The 16 Basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities by Steven Reiss of Ohio State. I’ve attached an article by him for a quick start.
9. I find it also helps to provide an example of when communication alone does work so they can see the difference in the factors that influence behavior. The example I like is SIDS. When we communicated that all you need to do is put your child to sleep on his back, the behavior change was readily adopted. But how hard is it to do that behavior. It doesn’t require any special equipment or special/skilled knowledge or special kind of person to do the action. Unless there is a cultural taboo against sleeping on one’s back, then this was easy to get people to do with communication alone. Not to mention that the potential outcome was highly prized and the opposite behavior could lead to catastrophic outcomes. So it was east to cut through the clutter, be heard, and be motivated — all pretty much with just communication. Then I show them Nancy Lee’s examples and point out why communication alone didn’t change behavior initially.
10. The challenge in finding research is this is one of those “it depends” issues. In some cases, such as when there is a severe threat and an easy-to-perform action, information IS enough to change the behavior of many — two examples I recall are putting babies on their back to sleep to avoid Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and not giving children aspirin to avoid Reye’s Syndrome.
However, in many other cases, information alone isn’t. Mike Rothschild’s “Carrots, Sticks and Promises” article may either be what you need or point you to it — especially the discussion of the Motive, Opportunity, Ability framework (e.g., for info alone to work, one must have the motivation, opportunity and ability to make the change). You can find it here: http://www.social-marketing.org/papers/carrotarticle.pdf
This is old, but the proceedings from a USDA-sponsored evaluation conference meet the “easy, understandable language” criterion and may help you; a focus of the conference was the situations in which nutrition education “works” and some of the speakers make the points you are probably
trying to find documented: http://www.nal.usda.gov/foodstamp/FOODSTAMPREPORTS/FSP-37.PDF Isobel
Contento’s session should reference a published lit review that draws some of the same conclusions. It’s been a long time since I’ve looked at this document, but some of the discussion was around the many situations in which the Knowledge-attitude-behavior paradigm just doesn’t work, and the need to also address the environment in which the behavior is taking place.
11. The example I use when presenting is to ask people to raise their hands if they know that eating right and getting regular exercise are important for good health (almost all hands go up). Then I ask how many people in the room actually do eat right and get enough exercise (half or so will raise their hands).
12. I think CSAP’s (SAMHSA’s Center for the Application of Prevention Technology) environmental approach to alcohol abuse, misuse and underage drinking prevention may offer support for your argument. There is little doubt that a comprehensive approach to substance abuse prevention is the most effective means to see positive results. CSAP basically suggests besides information dissemination and education, policy change and alternatives are necessary for success. http://www.captus.org/Western/resources/bp/step6/bpcsap.cfm Another organization, PIRE, (Pacific Institute for Research Evaluation) provides more than adequate data to support the necessary inclusion of policy change to reduce DUI’s and underage drinking. You can find that data on their site. http://www.pire.org/index.asp I’ve believed that the three legged stool metaphor is appropriate for alcohol misuse prevention. Information dissemination, alternatives and policy change are the legs that support behavioral change. Many would argue that addressing individual factors included in the universal, school, family and peer environments also need to be addressed and I would have a difficult time arguing with that. The bottom line is comprehensive approaches are best. I hope this helps.
13. You might want to look at the accessible work of Larry Green, who developed the PRECEDE-PROCEED models for (health) behavior change. His web site http://www.lgreen.net/precede.htm notes that there some 960 published studies that apply this model and he includes a link to a bibliography. There is also the body of work by Martin Fishbein at UPenn. His two key contributions to behavior change research: the Theory of Reasoned Action and Expectancy-Value Theory might bolster your (correct) assertion that it takes more than information to change behavior. You need to understand the larger context of how people perceive and value the information, and how attitude plays a major role. Wikipedia has accessible explanations of this scientifically rigorous work. Hope this helps. Web sites of other government agencies, such as the National Cancer Institute, may help. They have huge programs studying how to optimize communication (they don’t refer to it as social marketing, but that’s what it is) in order to produce behavior change. NCI’s Pink Book (aka Making Health Communication Programs Work) is a concrete example of what another gov’t agency is doing in this arena.
14. While in my graduate program in public health we learned that effective programs must include components of Knowledge Attitude and behavior change. Please check out the following resource on tools for Behavior Change Communication: http://www.infoforhealth.org/inforeports/BCCtools/2.shtml Under the section labeled “Understand Audience and other Potential Participants..” Collect in depth information about the audience: What are their knowledge attitudes and beliefs about health? To further support your argument you can also refer to the basic rules of evaluation… Establishing program objectives and deciding the particular evidence (such as the specific knowledge, attitudes, or behavior) that will demonstrate that the objectives have been met. A key to successful evaluation is a set of clear, measurable, and realistic program objectives. If objectives are unrealistically optimistic or are not measurable, the program may not be able to demonstrate that it has been successful even if it has done a good job. http://www.evaluationwiki.org/index.php/Evaluation_Definition I hope this is of help to you.
Still with us?? =)
15. Check out the US Forest Service’s research station. An excellent contact there is Pat Winter, PhD, a USFS employee who conducts research that may relate to your mission as well. At least, you can show that federal agencies understand the value of social marketing and are active in defining how it can be used to meet their goals.
16. I hope this helps. This article tells of a specific program that helps in drinking and driving in a Texas City. I have not analyzed the methods, but sounds very interesting. Also the Dept of Texas funds a drinking and driving program for young adults. The program is run by an Sherry Matthews Advocacy Agency in Austin, if you need more info let me know. The website is: http://whosdrivingtonight.com/
17. You can try searching this reference-see below for a brief summary (Redman, Spencer and Sanson-Fisher, 1990) though it’s a bit outdated, it might give you a bit of a start. This was taken from page 10 of The Health Communication Unit’s resource booklet on communication campaigns.
When applied on their own-without complementary strategies such as community mobilization-the ability of some health communication campaigns to effect change is limited. In particular, a large body of evidence suggests that health communication campaigns relying exclusively on media appeals are not a sufficient means of changing attitudes and behaviour. In some contrast to the meta analysis found on this page, recent review of 24 published evaluations of health promotion programs revealed that media alone interventions had little impact on behaviour (Redman, Spencer and Sanson-Fisher, 1990).
18. Of course, the answer is (as it always seems to be when you look closely), “it depends.” On the behavior in question, that is. A very good scientific discussion of the if/thens is provided in Leslie Snyder’s meta-analysis. The reference is: Snyder LB. J Nutr Educ Behav. Health communication campaigns and their impact on behavior. 2007 Mar-Apr;39(2 Suppl):S32-40.
19. I think this might help you out a bit…(abstract) This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisiation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i) direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii) social marketing at the population level. http://www.ijmhs.com/content/2/1/3
20. This is an issue I deal with all the time and there’s tons of research to the contrary. Most behaviour change theories use some variant of the motivation, opportunity, ability model where knowledge is just one aspect of ability. If there’s no opportunity to behave or motivation to behave knowledge alone won’t work. Here’s one reference: Keller, Kevin Lane. “Memory Retrieval Factors and Advertising Effectiveness.” In Advertising Exposure, Memory and Choice, edited by Andrew A. Mitchell. New Jersey; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1993. If you’d like more please let me know. In an ideal world I’d suggest doing a KAPB survey and asking the same questions of those who already do what you want and those who don’t.
Ask a bunch of knowledge questions as well as other motivation, opportunity and ability questions. If the knowledge levels of those who behave and those who don’t behave are the same it’s clearly not the key thing driving behaviour and sadly this data is often necessary to finally convince people not to focus on knowledge.
21. Perhaps the point is not so much providing evidence to this person(there is lots of that), but acknowledging that they do have a point and then showing them evidence that while info alone can bring about change, enhancing the info/facilitating/etc etc can bring about greater change & faster. The fact is that many people do change their behavior on the basis of information alone. The Sloan-Kettering report on cancer & tobacco tar in 1953 and the 1964 Surgeon-General’s report on smoking were both followed by declines in smoking rates without any campaigns or other measures. However smoking rates began (and continued) to decline significantly when advertising campaigns dramatized & personalized the information. (Of course not all behaviours are the same — nor are all people – and that is another point).
Hope this helps! =)